An industrial geography of cocaine (latin american studies: social sciences & law) [christian m allen] on amazoncom free shipping on qualifying offers latin american cocaine trafficking organizations comprise an indigenous, globally competitive, multinational industry their business operations are deeply. Keywords: illicit drugs profiling heroin cocaine amphetamine type stimulants drug profiling is like any the identity of the drug itself, say cocaine, there are hundreds of other molecules, many of which can tell a story intelligence is information relating to the geographical origin of cultivated or semi- cultivated drugs and. Following a significant increase over the period 2002-2005, global cocaine seizure totals have recently followed a stable trend, amounting to 712 tons in 2007 and 711 tons in 2008 seizures continued to be concentrated in the americas and europe however, the transition from 2007 to 2008 brought about a geographical. The european union is spending £40million on mapping cocaine smuggling across the globe. Table 1—agora drug type breakdown by listings drug type frequency % total drugs cumulative % heroin 353 248 248 cocaine 896 631 879 nps 2,205 1552 2431 prescription 4,056 2854 5258 all other drugs 6,700 4409 10000 total 14,210 54 geographical review. Cocaine histories and diverging drug war politics 7 consciously added the political hot label “indigenous” to coca to advance their cause coca became reconstructed as a fundamental indigenous “right” this history of coca can also be read in terms of bolivia's social geography coca has served, in various ways, as an. (see white house graphic below) for drug production that means a jump from 185 tons to 245 tons, which, as noted in more detail below, insight crime believes is an underestimation of the true amount of cocaine produced every year in colombia in terms of geography, the provinces (or departments, as. 1 master's thesis jens flinch jørgensen the value chains of illegal drugs: a case study of the cocaine and heroin trade to denmark academic advisor: marianne nylandsted larsen august 2015.
Cocaine is one of the few products grown, processed, exported and distributed in the third world exports alone are valued at about half the world coffee trade if estimates of deliveries to consumer countries are combined but when bulk shipments are broken down for the individual customer, prices skyrocket by over 300. The street price of cocaine varies hugely across the world no surprise that it is cheapest in colombia, the world's biggest producer of coca: at $2, a gram costs less than a big mac geography is an obvious price factor the farther away a country from the main producers in south and central america, and. In an industrial geography of cocaine, christian m allen synthesizes the literature on cocaine production, trafficking, and distribution to generate a model of the industry and its firms, thereby offering insight into the connections between drugprohibition policies and trends towards economic liberalization in the western.
Peter cohen arjan sas cocaine a follow-up study of 64 cocaine users in amsterdam ten years of amsterdam, 1993 department of human geography university of amsterdam nieuwe prinsengracht 130 1018 vz amsterdam netherlands. What they are looking for, and what they have coyly euphemised, are big, bulging bags of colombian cocaine a combination of law enforcement, geography and ocean currents has washed tonnes of the drug, and millions of dollars, into what was one of the caribbean's most desolate and isolated regions. Abstract coca is the common name of a shrub, erythroxylum coca, domesticated millennia ago in the andes mountains of south america its leaves are picked and transformed into various products, one of which is cocaine the result is to spatially link the locations of coca cultivation in south america to the places in the. At the heart of it is cocaine in zerozerozero (the title alludes to the finest grade of the drug) best-selling author roberto saviano, who lives under police protection, uncovers the global tentacles of the trade, from the jungles of south america to mexico, new york, and italy lays bare the appalling violence.
Here we show that cocaine originating from different geographic regions in south america can be identified by its isotope-ratio signature the distinct carbon (δ13c ) and nitrogen (δ15n) isotope-ratio combinations allow the country of origin to be determined for the principal coca-growing regions along the. Columbia has grown to be such a center of illegal activity because of much more than being a good geographical location in columbia it is since the 70's colombia has been one of the worlds leading drug suppliers, with marijuana in the 70's, cocaine exportation in the 80's and coca producer in the 90's.
The world's most substantial quantities of coca, the plant from which the illicit drug cocaine is derived, grow in south america, and local manufacturers process almost all of the cocaine there coca can be grown in a number of geographic locales, including mexico, but only the south american geography is. 30 the dominican republic is by far the most frequent source of cocaine courier flights to european destinations, and has recently the history of cocaine trafficking from south america to the united states has been well geography of guatemala, which does not allow a road directly north from the honduran border. At the same time, by paying local collaborators in both cash and cocaine, the traffickers are creating a local consumer market for the drug the geography of guinea-bissau, with its myriad of coastal islands, makes it the perfect destination for unloading drugs that have been transported by sea, often from brazil or venezuela. For an analysis of the gulf cartel, including the effects of globalization on its operations, see stephanie brophy's “mexico cartels, corruption and cocaine: a profile of the gulf cartel” (global crime, vol 9, #3, august 2008, pp 248-261) this article dates back to 2010 for updates, see: mexico's drug cartels.
Colombia is currently the center of the south american drug trade, producing more than 80 percent of the world's cocaine supply located at the northern tip of south america, colombia borders panama, venezuela, ecuador, peru, and brazil the country is accessible from both the caribbean and the.
Welcome to the ca uk 'where to find' meeting directory please select the search type (geography, district or postcode) using the link below, then click on the link or enter a postcode 'closed' meetings are for addicts and those who think they might have a problem with drugs only unless otherwise stated all meetings. Peter cohen arjan sas amsterdam, 1995 department of human geography university of amsterdam nieuwe prinsengracht 130 1018 vz amsterdam netherlands cocaine use in amsterdam ii initiation and patterns of use after 1986. Drug use (mostly alcohol and cannabis but also lsd, amphetamines, cocaine or crack, barbiturates, pcp, inhalants, and valium) is linked to place perception, activity space, and social networks rengert, george the geography of illegal drugs boulder, co: westview, 1996 e-mail citation » seminal text.